PAPINEAU OF QUÉBEC
AND OTHER PLACES
Samuel Papineau dit Montigny, 1670-1737
1.3 Soldier of "les troupes de la Marine", from 1688 to 1698.
Here is what could have looked like the soldier " Montigny ".
Soldiers of the Troops of Marine, in campaign and in parade.
Soldiers in winter uniform.
The English and Dutch traders of New-England, wanting to widen their fur trade grounds to the Great Lakes, armed the Indian Iroquois tribes to attack Montréal. On the other end there were the inept expeditions of Governor De La Barre in 1683 and the clumsiness of his successor De Nonville who seized the ambassadors sent by the Onnontagués and sent them to the royal galleys of Marseille. This united the Iroquois Five-Nations against France. One result will be the disastrous massacre of complete families and the destruction of 56 houses in Lachine, on the island of Montreal, in the night of the 4th to 5th of August 1689. One also witnesses afterward the devastation of numerous surrounding villages. Lachenaie, Saint François on the Île-Jesus, Rivière-des-Prairies are alternately decimated and dozen of men, women and children killed or taken in captivity.
The newly arrived troops were marshalled in vain against the sneaky attacks which do not give any grip to a real face-to-face with the ennemy. The officers and the soldiers fast learn the merciless rules of the ambush war practiced in this country.
And finally the rumor heard in Rochefort is confirmed: former Governor Frontenac is chosen again to take charge of the situation. Immediately upon his arrival, he rushes to Montreal with all the troops, well decided to tame New-England and get back the support or the neutrality of the Iroquois.
But a messenger arrives to announce that an important fleet arriving from Boston is sailing up the Saint Laurent river to attack the City of Quebec.
Another army under the command of Winthrop coming from Manhatte (New-York) is also moving towards Montréal, up the Hudson River and Lake Champlain. Frontenac quickly returns towards Quebec to organize the defence of the citadel city. And the French troops, the Canadian militias and their Amerindian allies complement each other marvelously to win one of most glorious victories in the history of New-France.
One hopes that this great feat of 1690 by Count de Frontenac on Admiral Phipps would inspire again in New-England fear and respect. But to no avail. The soldiers have to return rapidly to Montreal because the for the next few years, the troops have to make avenging raids and push back raids as in Prairie-de-la-Madeleine where they deliver a decisive battle against the troops of the Dutch major Peter Schuyler of Orange (Albany) in 1691. Nevertheless the Iroquois continued their attacks which hindered the sowing and harvests of 1691 and 1692.
Frontenac had always defended the importance of a fortified post to give access to Lake Ontario. Against the orders of Versailles, he sent some seven hundred people to reconstruct Fort Cataracoui, fortunately hardly damaged by the demolition efforts of 1689. They went up the Saint Laurent in the spring of 1695 on the flat boats they had built during the winter of 1693. The expedition is under the command of Captain De Crisafy and includes the company of captain De La Grois as well as soldiers of captains Noyan, Vallières, Maricourt and Linvillier. In August they are back in Montreal having left a garrison of 48 people and without having met a single enemy.
Fort Cataracoui, later named Fort Frontenac, then Kingston, Ontario.
It is Samuel Papineau's first raid in these countries which he and his descendants will often visit and eventually occupy in large number.
The count of Frontenac, in spite of his great age, steers personally in 1696 a strong expedition of 2300 people pulled from the 28 companies of the troops, the Canadian militias and the Indian allies. They restore entirely the former strong places and manages to repatriate a large number of the French and Amerindian hostages.
Samuel Papineau cannot suspect that among these hostages are his future wife Catherine Quevillon with her mother Jeanne Hunault as well as Pierre Laurin dit Lachapelle, who will become a captain of militia of Saut-au-Récollet and will be his witness at his marriage in 1704.
Signature of Ryswick Treaty
The treaty of Ryswick terminating the war between France and the Augsbourg's League between 1692 and 1697 will be known belatedly in America. The homeland as well as the colony will enjoy a brief interlude of peace until the war for the succession to the Spanish throne, which from 1702 to 1713 will unite against Louis XIV unlikely allies such as England, Holland and Spain. So, while Boston, Manhatte (New York), Orange (Albany) and Corlaer(Schenectady), traditional bases of the English and the Dutch, could not attack openly any more either Québec City or Montreal, they were arming the Iroquois tribes to attack the French outposts in the Great Lakes.
Finally, Governor Frontenac's prestige, when he dies in Quebec in 1698, and that of his successor, Governor De Callières, succeed in bringing the Five-Nations to ask for peace. After long negotiations was signed in 1701 the Peace of Montreal, also known as the Peace of Callières, in the presence of all the Montréal population, the officers and the soldiers in full dress and the leaders of 37 Indian tribes come from as far as Illinois and Mississipi.
The 300th anniversary of this momentous event was celebrated in Montreal in 2001.