and other places
1.6 life in Montréal in Nouvelle-France
    in the days of Samuel and Catherine Papineau
    in the early 18th century.
The historical context since the general demobilization of the Troops in 1698 until the marriage of the first ancestor Samuel Papineau in 1704, was a strategic period for the development of Montreal. It was situated in the peace interlude in Europe and thus in New-France, between the treaties of Ryswick of 1697 ending the war of the League of Augsbourg and the resumption of the hostilities in 1704, the beginning of the war of succession of Spain.  New-France and especially Montreal needed this respite.

Montreal had been born in 1642 on the initiative of a religious company aiming at the conversion of the native peoples. Their recruits became established on a completely uninhabited island, formerly called Hochelaga, which had been granted to them by royal decree.

South-west of Montréal, were the powerful  Confederation  of the  Iroquois five nations whose villages were located along  the Mohawk River in the north of today's State of New York, between Albany and Syracuse. East of them were the Mohicans, whose sad  disappearance was made famous by a novel by Fennimore Cooper.  These tribes had become suppliers of furs to the Dutch merchants in Corlear, today's Schenectady, and in Orange, today's Albany, and down the Hudson river in a north-south axis, to New-Amsterdam, today's New-York. Later they were supplying the English merchants after England's victory over Holland.

The Iroquois saw the birth of Montreal as a danger by creating a new east-west trading route developed by the French via the St. Lawrence. They have not stopped trying to exterminate these competitors.
This is the saga of Governor De Maisonneuve, of Major Lambert Closse and those brave settlers whose history is so vividly told by Sulpician Dollier  de Casson in his "History of Montreal" that he sent secretly patients in the Sulpician's hospital in Paris, a papal decree forbidding missionaries to publish "Relations of the missionaries."
But a few years later the situation of Montreal, the first target of Iroquois depravities, seemed hopeless.
It's leaders would try a last effort to save the frail settelment.

They sent to France monsieur de Maisonneuve, who, together with french patrons of the Society of Our Lady, as Mr. De La Dauversière, and thanks to the generosity of Madame de Bullion, financed the recruit of a hundred contractual settlerss.
This became known as the 1653  Great Recruit,  of which the 350th anniversary was celebrated in the fall of 2003.

After many difficulties in the Atlantic crossing, they settled in Montreal in the late fall. Many of these brave young men were part of the heroic battle of the Long Sault in 1660, where they managed to stand up to the Iroquois, albeit all loosing their life.
Historians say that these hundred recruits of 1653  saved the very existence of New France.

The small French community stood fast until the arrival of reinforcements of the French regular army in 1666.
The regiment Carignan-Sallières will soon obtain from the Iroquois the signature of a peace that will last 25 years.

Several of these officers and their soldiers were convinced to settle in the Richelieu river valley and along the shores of the St. Lawrence River, cutting off the avenues of attack, as the only way to effectively move was by canoe.
Thus, the coalition of British, Dutch and Iroquois of the British colony of New York saw their worst fears come true.

New France, its military, its valiant voyageurs, known as "coureurs-des-bois" and even the Jesuit missionaries penetrated more deeply among the nations of the Great Lakes. They not only amplified the dominance of the route of the St. Lawrence, but they even dared to draw a new road of furs to the south down the Mississippi River, with another access to the sea in Louisiana. 

At the same time, Montréal born Lemoyne d'Iberville and his brave sailors challenged the British sea route north to Hudson Bay.
Governor Frontenac had thus illustrated his first term as Governor of what was now called Canada.

The pretext to resume hostilities in the New World will be in 1686 when war was declared in Europe by the League of Augsburg,  England and Holland against France.
Unfortunately, the successors of Frontenac, the governors of  De La Barre and then Denonville did not understand the country, and in particular the tactics of the "little war", to stifle the conspiracies of the enemy coalition or defeat them on the ground.
Montreal was decimated repeatedly from 1686 to 1696, the worst carnage occurred in the night of the fourth of August 1689 in what was called the "massacre of Lachine, followed by attacks on Lachenaie, Rivière-des-Prairies, Pointe - aux-Trembles, Verchères and other villages.
Frontenac then returned in 1689 to take things in hand.
He now had at his disposal a new army made up of  35 companies arrived between 1683 and 1688, totaling 1600 soldiers and officers of the Troupes de la Marine. They are not from the French regular army but are recruited in the maritime provinces of France. Youth and stamina makes up for their lack of experience on the battlefields, giving them greater versatility and adaptability for the "little war". They will first be tested by stopping the invasion of Québec by the soldiers and sailors of Admiral Phipps in the fall of 1690. This victory at Quebec however had not much effect with the Iroquois.

The attacks continued, however, by the Onondaga Iroquois nation, driven by one of its leaders, Chaudière Noire (Black Cauldron).
Frontenac then took the offensive.  After having restored the outpost of Fort Cataracoui, now Kingston, Ontario, despite his advanced age, he ran a campaign with 2300 men against the Iroquois territories and villages.
This vigorous campaign of 1696 had won a lasting peace with the Iroquois of New England and the western tribes of America.
The diplomatic skills of Frontenac heralded a lasting peace but he soon died and did not see to its fruition.
Now King Louis XIV could authorize by a royal ordinance of 1698 the demobilization of troops, now called "Companies Franches de la Marine", giving the soldiers a generous dowry and ordering that they be given land. He did the same in favor of women born here, often war widows and mothers, by granting them by a decree of 1700, "a dowry of fifty pounds to those who take husbands in this country". As most soldiers accepted to become land-owners and farmers, new concessions were opened on the island of Montreal, mostly at Côte Saint-Michel and Côte Saint-Laurent. The civilian population in Montreal quickly doubled, reaching about two thousand five hundred souls.

In 1701, was convened a gathering of all belligerants for the signature of the Great Peace of Montreal, presided by the new governor, the Marquis de Callières, with thirty-nine Indian nations present, from as far away as Illinois.


A map drawn up by the lords Sulpicians,dated 1702 and identifying the existing five hundred owners and tenants, provides a picture of Montreal, which reflects the culmination of all these events.
There are many chronicles of Montreal of this period by many historians, ancient and modern. This includes: The History of Montreal by Sulpician Dollier Casson, the History of Canada by his successor Vachon de Belmont, up to those of our contemporaries like Robert Prevost, Montreal, the crazy enterprise,published by Stanké in 1991.
Montrealers of 1702.
The city of Montreal of 1702, as will be that of 2002, was built by the action of all its people: the simple "habitant" (this title given by the King with his dowry was valued as a letter of nobility), the religious men and women, merchants, artisans, soldiers and their officers, the intrepid voyageurs allowed to travel "to the upper country", and even the "coureurs des bois", euphemistically called "volunteers", who were trafficking illegally.

History is often cruel and forgets the simple people, but it is forgiven when it preserves the memory of those who accompanied them.
So the archives are full of the life and deeds of notables who have played an important role in Montréal in 1702.
Many can be found with detailed records in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography (DCB) from Toronto University (available on the Internet). A search will reveal many, such as Vachon de Belmont and his predecessor Dollier Casson, governors, Frontenac, Callières, Vaudreuil, the intendant Bochart de Champigny, the Huron chief Kondiaronk and his old enemy Black Cauldron. There are also three key players, unjustly ignored in the celebrations of the Great Peaceof Motréal. They were admitted among the Iroquois and spoke their language, the Jesuit Jacques Bruyas, captain Paul Lemoyne de Maricourt and Chevalier de Joncaire; officers such as Crisafy, Testard de Montigny, Lemoyne de Louvigny; the Charron brothers, founders of the Montreal General Hospital. Most appear in the list in the map of 1702, either in person or in the anonymity of their institutions.

The handwritten list of the occupants found on the original and their land holding has many difficulties in their interpretation
First, the phonetic spelling is frequent. Very often the scribe recorded instead of the family name his surname or nickname that, for a soldier, was his nom de guerre or war name, often better known than his name. Moreover, often some descendants keep the nickname and the name disappears. In some situations, people adopt a nickname, this with the complicity of the clergy who had the sole responsibility of the registrar.  It is then often difficult to link a name listed on the map of 1702 with his descendants in 2002. Fortunately, research tools both on paper and by computer have been developed to assist genealogists and historians to overcome these obstacles.
Some 1702 families well known in 2002.
The history of some pioneer families has already been quite popular:
Jacques Lacoursière made an article on a family in every issue of its publication nos Racnes (Our Roots).
Robert Prevost, a former journalist and diplomat of Quebec, has published for several years in La Presse a summary of the history of many families, now available in book form, Portraits of pioneering families, Libre Expression, 1993.
Today there are several other stories of families that may overlap with the list of Montreal in 1702.
Several associations of families, often grouped in the Fédération des familles souches, have done some genealogy and family history. The Drouin Institute, for example, made hundreds.
Many professional and amateur genealogists, often at retirement, research them for themselves, for friends or for publication.

              1.6.2  To continue the Papineau history, one can choose to consult:
1.7.0  Research  and analysis documents  pertaining to the first generation              (highly recommanded although only partly translated)     >>>

2.0   >>>    or go to the second generation: (partly translated)     2.0   >>>