Papineau-Histoire-Qc.ca
PAPINEAU OF QUÉBEC 
and other places
First generation :
Samuel Papineau dit Montigny, 1670-1737
1.4 settler and militiaman at Côte-St-Michel of Montréal.


Relative peace and prosperity having been restored in the
urban and rural areas, the intendant Bochart de Champigny is authorized by Royal Order of 21st. of May 1698 to accelerate the demobilization of soldiers of  the troops who wish to remain in Canada.
Being a wise man, he knows very well that all these soldiers are single therefore wives have to be found to attach them to the farming land granted by the landholders, the Sulpicians seigneurs of the island of Montréal in particular.
Without feminine companionship to hold them back, they would leave for the fur trade as "coureur des bois", what the king has strictly forbidden.
As a good manager, he decides to combine the budget allocated by Paris to provide for 60 girls a dowry of 50 pounds  each, with the discharge bonus allocated to the soldiers, that is a year of pay, his uniform and his gun.

Champigny reported to Paris in these terms: ''State of
the distribution of three thousand pounds granted by the king in the year 1700 to provide 60 girls with 50 pounds for each.''
 
Contrary to popular belief, these girls are not the
"Orphans of the King" also known as "Daughters of the King", (Filles du Roi)from France, as was the case in 1668 for alliance with the soldiers of the Carignan-Sallières regiment. Now, these women were almost exclusively born in Canada.
Many are widows of the Iroquois wars, some with many
children. Others come back from captivity, such as Jeanne Hénault-Deschamps the future step-mother of Samuel Papineau.

At the end of his ten years as a soldier in 1698, Samuel craves to discover the adventurous life and often lucrative business of the fur trade. He therefore loses this  pay of six "sols" per day that the king granted for one year to those who remain at home to get married, for a loss of about a hundred pounds. We imagine that this was well compensated by the benefits from the furs gathered with his friends.
This hard winter spent in the confines of "The Great River", now called Ottawa River, has none the less produced some nostalgia for the more sedentary life of his Poitevin childhood.


Several of his best comrades had indeed just married Canadian women who received the royal dowry of fifty pounds: Jean Pouget dit Grisdelin, from Villamblard in Périgord, married to widow Marthe Brassard and settled in Côte-St-Michel. Pierre Cardinal from Fontenay-le-Comte in the Vendée and Marie-Anne Thuillier obtained land grant by the Sulpicians in Rivière-des-Prairies, on the north side of the island of Montreal. Their elder friend, Pierre Taillefer, from Calvados in Normandy, is also there with Jeanne Huneault dit Deschamps, widow of Adrien Quevillon, a victim of the Iroquois. Jacques Heriché dit Louvetot from Louvetot near Rouen has married widow Marie Geoffrion and they are also in Côte-St-Michel.
Together, they convince their friend Montigny to remain in Canada, and even promise to help find a wife to his liking.

And thus he takes his decision in the spring of 1699.

A still young man at twenty-nine, he was granted a homestead by the Sulpicians. He scribbled his initials on the document, because he could not sign his name, and thus became a land owner of sixty acres in Côte-St-Michel in the island of Montreal.
Of course he was subject to all charges, much lighter for a former military, and had to declare "faith and honor" to the lords Sulpicians.


That day, April 25th 1699, with Samuel Papineau dit Montigny began the epic adventure of the Papineau name in the New World.

From that first summer he bravely tackles the clearing of his land as stipulated in the contract, seeds the essential grains and vegetables for the season and, as customary, mobilizes friends and neighbors to raise a wooden house. It is in the piece-on-piece fashion of the times, because they had quickly learned that a stone house like in France was not suitable for the harsh Canadian winters.

Typical house of a resident, made of suare logs spliced and connected by dovetail,
style known as "piece on piece", still frequent today.
     (painting by Cornelius Krieghoff)
    
He has just learned that a distant cousin, Louis Papineau dit Deslauriers,  a distant branch of Papineau from Niort, mostly Huguenots, newly arrived in the company of Monsieur de Longueuil, was killed in combat at the age of  24 and buried in June 1699.
    
These early years are of unprecedented difficulty, the work done by hand because they have not yet livestock, oxen or horse drawn plow. Pick, sickle, fork and pride are the tools of the brave people. As owners of their lands, they proudly claim as a title of nobility the name "habitant" that the King had conferred to them in his Order of the 21st. of May 1698, and they would consider the word peasant as an insult.
    
During their military service, ther were no caserns, so soldiers lived in houses where, against the work in the fields, they could supplement their meager pay. It is very often among the daughters of their host or his neighbors that they found their future wife at demobilization.
Today, they continue to contribute to the country's defence since every man from sixteen to sixty years must possess a rifle, and once a month, join his parish militia company for war exercise.


Militiaman dressed for the winter season. (Francis Back) and the uniform given the militia around 1750.

He meets regularly with his neighbors, known as "the giants of Côte-St-Michel", as they appear in the 1702 census done at the request of the new superior of the Sulpicians, Vachon de Belmont, who came to succeed Dollier de Casson.
Montigny's neighbors on the south side of the road which later became the "The King's Road" and later rue Jarry, are called: Larose, Beaulieu, Sancerre, Laflèche, Louvetot, Lafortune, Viger, Grisdelin.
On the north side are: Lacroix, Lalouette, Alavoyne, Lagrandeur, Laviolette, St-Amant, Laforme, Lafantaisie, mostly identified on this very official parchment by their nickname or nom-de-guerre of former Troupes de la Marine.
A few miles further north, there are also older members of the Troops in Rivière-des-Prairies, including Pierre Taillefer and Pierre Cardinal.

On the 12th of September 1701, his friend Pierre Cardinal asked Samuel to be the godfather at the baptism of his second son, François.
This is the first time that Samuel Papineau dit Montigny is declared in writing on the birth certificate signed by the priest: Occupation, "volunteer ".
Volunteer may mean that he was not a conscript when he was recruited in France.
This first meaning has been passed down from generation to generation: Samuel had volunteered to replace his conscripted older brother who was the mainstay of the family, their father being deceased. This brother might have been Gilles Papineau, later granted a seal as a resident of Montigny's nearby  xxxx,
But volunteer was also the title that was given to the Ville-Marie "coureur des bois" who went to the fur trade without a license and, to avoid Montréal, sometimes would sell their wares along the Mohawk river to the Dutch merchants in Corlear (Schenectady) or Orange (Albany), after passing through the hostile Iroquois villages.

The small community is still quite
isolated, hardly communicating with Ville-Marie, through the Côte de la Visitation to the south.
To the North-East lies a land concession of 1685 called Côte St-Dominique, which became in 1687 the parish of Rivière-des-Prairies. This was the point of arrival on the island of Montreal in the early days of the colony.
One can see the palisade fort built by the captain de Senneville at the request of the Sulpicians. It was called Fort Desroches, named after Paul Desrochers who is the commandant. There is a small wooden church built in 1689, the seigneurial grits mill. Jean Sicard, another Vendéen, is the miller and his wife Catherine Lauzon, is the heroic woman, as told by father De Belmont, who stood up to a band of Iroquois during the massacres of 1691.
Further up river on Rivière-des-Prairies is  Sault-au-Récollet, where Fort Lorette was erected in 1696 by the Sulpicians to host the Indians of Fort-de-la-Montagne, now too close to the inns of the city. The fort contains a small wooden chapel, a school of the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre-Dame and the residence of the resident missionary.

With the arrival of each new concessionaire, men and women of Côte-St-Michel come together. They meet each Sunday at offices provided by a missionary of Ville-Marie, who, depending on the season, alternates between the tiny oratory on Côte-St-Michel across the farm of Samuel, the first parish erected in St-Joseph de Rivière-des-Prairies, Fort-Lorette and Saint-Laurent.

On the occasion of major religious feasts they make the long walk to the first church of Notre-Dame de Montreal, erected by the care of Dollier de Casson.
He combined talents as an architect with his past as a soldier in his late religious vocation. To raise the funds needed for its construction, he obtained from the governor of Montreal, Chevalier de Callières,  an exceptional permit for the fur trade in the upper country.


For Samuel, now known both as Papineau and as Montigny, the first years of his new vocation as an habitant are agitated. Each month, with its neighbors of Côte-St-Michel, he goes to the war exercises of his militia company led by the sergeant Pierre Richer dit Laflotte, nickname inherited from the name of his native parish on the island of Ré.
The colony was still under the threat of the English and Dutch of New England who are furious at having lost the effect of the threat on Canada of the Iroquois that they use as their mercenaries. This threat having disappeared, the French were able to assure a good base in Detroit and thus lock both the access to the Great Lakes and to the Mississippi River, which provides the link to Louisiana.
The militiamen and the Indian allies often accompany the regular troops  to supply these French forts.

As in a novel, his old friend Pierre Taillefer invites his old friend Samuel, who is still unmarried, to the midnight Christmas mass of 1703 in Rivière-des-Prairies, and then for the "réveillon" in the ancestral home of his wife Jeanne Huneault dit Deschamps.
There also is his step-daughter Catherine Quevillon, widow of their friend Guillaume Lacombe dit St. Amant with whom she had lived only four months before he died.
She was 17 and Samuel, at age 34, was twice older. But despite his tumultuous life he still had the full strenht and good looks of his tender youth.
Obviously they knew one another since their homesteads were both on Côte-St-Michel
Soon, on the  8th. of June 1704, in the house of Jacques Vaudry, the same notary Pierre Raimbault who officiated at the purchase of his land, submitted to Samuel a marriage contract. Witnesses for the occasion are his friends Jean Pouget dit Grisdelin of Côte-St-Michel, and Pierre Cardinal, of Rivière-des-Prairies.
As is customary, there was the publication of the three regulatory bans three consecutive Sundays.
And on the 16th. of  June 1704, Samuel arrives to the  of Catherine, St-Joseph de la Rivière-des-Prairies, newly reopened for worship. He is with his witness Pierre Laurin, captain of the militia company of Fort-Lorette, son of Pierre Lachapelle dit Lorin of Chatellerault in Poitou. The Sulpician father who officiates, Jean Bouffandeau is also a Vendéen born in Cholet, three years younger than Samuel.
The original act of marriage (including transcripts) confirmed the fate of Samuel Papineau and Catherine Quevillon.

Catherine Quevillon lived up to ninety five years, surpassing her mother Jeanne Huneault dit  Deschamps who had eight children from three marriages.
Catherine was called "the woman wih four husbands", but had no other children than the nine she gave Samuel Papineau: three girls and six boys who will give them 93 grand-children of whom fifty will marry.
As her mother, she has a great temperament, inherited from her prolonged stay in an Iroquois tribe, which also explains that she has not learned to write, as witnessed in many
notarized documents. However  she knew well her grandchildren, including Joseph II born in 1752,  notary and member of parliament. They will transmit the oral history of her unusual and very exciting life.
One can follow the path of  the Papineau-Quevillon through many official documents including the notarial deeds. Fortunately there are no records in the criminal archives.

The Papineau couple is very gregarious, often invited to baptisms and marriages in the region where they also draw the godmothers and godfathers for their three daughters and six sons. Among many of these families, Samuel found "countrymen" of his native Poitou and Vendée and many former comrades of the Marine troops they can usually recognize from their nickname or "nom de guerre" necessarily attributed to the recruit:
 the youngest in the company of the Marquis of Grois,
Denis Jourdan dit Labrosse, who in 1706 said he was a bourgeois of Montreal
Jacques Richard dit Larose, his neighbor to the south,
Jacques Gauthier dit Saint-Germain,
Louis Leroux dit Lachaussée,
Jacques Heriché dit Louveot,
Antoine André dit Lafontaine,
Pierre Geoffrion dit Saint-Jean,
Pierre Richer dit Laflotte,
Nicolas Périllard dit Bourguignon,
Paul Dazé dit Queniot.
There is also François Tévenin dit Rencontre, who on the 19th. of March 1719 will be the godfather of the seventh child of Samuel, Joseph Papineau I dit Montigny, the direct ancestor of the well-known line of Canadian politicians.

The house built on land acquired in 1699 quickly became a nursery that must constantly enlarge. It hosts the first three girls in succession between 1705 and 1709 and thereafter six boys between 1712 and 1726.
At the last birth, Samuel was then 56 years old and Catherine was 40.

In 1705, the family decides not to retain the land of the Côte-St-Michel which Catherine had inherited from her first husband, Guillaume Lacombe dit St-Amant. They sell it to Jean Guilbert dit Laframboise who later ceded it to his daughter Elizabeth, married to André Antoine dit Lafontaine. All the historians of the Papineau family wrongly argue that this transaction applied to land acquired by Samuel in 1699. Yet the map of 1702, known as Vachon de Belmont, indicates the name of the owner as St-Amant, # 1075, and the enumeration of 1731 shows the name of Guilbert, # 5985.

By another act with the Sulpicians on the 29th. of January 1711,  Samuel Papineau had acquired a second piece of land in Rivière-des-Prairies, next to that of Catherine's brother, Jean-Baptiste. This land will be transferred to the step-parents of Samuel, Pierre Taillefer married to Jeanne Huneault. It was bought from the Sulpicians after eing auctioned by display at the parish church on the 26th. of June 1706, the 27th. of May 1707, the 26th. of May 1708 and the 5t. of July 1710.

Then another notarial deed  provides a very intriguing paper by which the Papineau spouses make a donation for the benefit of the Sulpicians of an annual fifteen pounds. We hope to find the explanation in the archives of Saint-Sulpice in Montréal or in Paris.

The Papineau family continued to occupy the original land since 1699. We can find an additional confirmation: "In Côte-Saint-Michel, parish of Saint-Laurent, among which is  the King's Road, on the left side of the town and overlooking it, confessions and counts filed in 1731 for fief, land and lordship of the isle of Montreal, designates, on behalf of Samuel Papineau dit Montigny,  a plot of land of 3 arpents front by 21 arpents deep, or 63 acres of which 31 are plowed, 6 in meadows, with a wooden house, a barn, but no stable".
Reflecting the evolution of the Côte-St-Michel, the successive baptismal records of the nine Papineau children are recorded either in Montreal, Riviere-des-Prairies and Saint-Laurent which was then part of Côte St-Michel. Later, these childrens' marriages are held either in Montreal, St. Laurent and in the new parish created in 1735, called the Sault-aux-Récollets in memory of a  Recollet
missionary who drowned in the rapids of the Rivière des Prairies with his indian helper Ahuntsic.

It was in the chapel of the Fort Lorette mission established in 1696 by the Sulpicians  that on the 23rd. of April 1737  took place the burial of Samuel Papineau dit Montigny. (Samuel's burial).

     The Papineau family lived very modestly as one can see from the inventory after Samuel's death. Indeed, fifteen months later, the notary François Lepailleur dated his inventory the 27th of July 1738:  ... furniture of the said community, located in the said Côte-St Michel, where we expressely carried in the house built thereon, where deceased Papineau ... In terms of buildings, the royal notary note: ... a land of three arpents front by 21 deep in the Côte-St-Michel  between the representatives of the late Vincent Lenoir and that of Martineau.
Vincent Lenoir was the godfather in 1706 of Catherine, the second daughter of Samuel, while his son Jean-Baptiste Papineau married in 1743 Charlotte, daughter of Pierre Martineau.
It will be seen that Catherine Quevillon Papineau and  eight other children will divest part of their family's heritage to Pierre Papineau dit Montigny.
Married to Marie-Joseph Brignon dit Lapierre, they had eleven children, of which eight were married and their descendants are today the most numerous of the Papineau.
     -------------------------------------------------- ----

 Here is the list of inhabitants of Côte-St-Michel in 1702. It is a digital reproduction of the original map and census of 1702 done at the request of Sulpician Vachon de Belmont. (Montigny (center left) and other soldiers of the company of Marquis De Lagroye: Louvetot, Gridelin, St-Amant, Lafantaisie).
     -------------------------------------------------- --------------------------
To study the mobility of the owners, we compared the census of 1702 with that of 1731. The Montigny of 1702 identifies Samuel Papineau, at the same place.
    
Côte-St-Michel became Rue Jarry, located here at the intersection of Boulevard St-Michel.
 

 
 
 
 

 Militiamen at war  Francis Back
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