PAPINEAU OF QUÉBEC
and other places
First generation :MARIE-CATHERINE QUEVILLON (1686-1781) 95 years !!!
maried on 16 June 1704 to Samuel Papineau dit Montigny (1670-1737)
1.5 the "Quevillon" and "Hunault dit Deschamps" : the first maternal ancestors of the Papineau family
Catherine Quevillon, the young wife of Samuel Papineau-Montigny, comes from families of pioneers by both her father and her mother.
Her father, Adrien Quevillon, (1645-1690) came from Normandie, engaged to the royal judge Louis Artus-Dessailly on his farm at the far eastern end of Ville-Marie, as Montréal was then called. In the census of 1666, he appears as engagé and ploughman. The archives say he is from St-Ouen-le-Mauger, near Dieppe, but in the diocese of Rouen. As he calls himself also ropemaker in the census of 1681, his family could come from the municipality of Quevillon, a southeastern suburb of Rouen which is the centre of this ropemaking industry. Today one finds there the royal rope factory and its museum, as in Rochefort. At the end of his commitment of thirty six months, one loses his track until his marriage with Jeanne Hunault-Deschamps on February 2, 1672, when he says of himself to be an "habitant", a farmer.
He is 27 years old, she is 14 years old. Then follows births from 1673 to that of Catherine in 1686, and the baptisms of their six children, the first two in Montreal and the others in Pointe-aux-Trembles. He has acquired a farm in Coste-St-Dominique which will become in 1687 part of the new parish of St-Joseph-de-la-Rivière-des-Prairies. (here the modern church)
The mother of Catherine, Jeanne Hunault-Deschamps ( 1658-1748 ), is also daughter of pioneers.
Her father, Toussaint Hunault-Deschamps ( 1628-1690 ), hails from St-Pierre-es-Champs, close to Beauvais, in Picardie,
on the border between Normandie and Ile-de-France. He had arrived at Ville-Marie (Montréal) also as an engaged man for 36 months. He had joined the Grande Recrue (the big recruit) of 1653, raised at the demand of the governor of Montreal, Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve. Historians agree that this group of some one hundred pioneers saved Montreal and New-France.
In 2003, was celebrated the 350th. anniversary of this difficult crossing up to Montreal, very well described in the Internet site: http://www.sgcf.com/recruit/ .
They were hundred and two men and fourteen women to embark in St-Nazaire, on June 20, 1653, on the vessel St-Nicolas bound for Québec and then on to Montreal. One passenger is a young 15 year old girl, Marie Lorgueil ( 1638-1700 ), native of the distant city of Cognac, in the Charente region. One ignores if Marie and Toussaint knew one another before the departure, but they will soon be married in the city church on November 23, 1654. The governor De Maisonneuve attends the marriage.
One can follow their progress through the notarial archives because Toussaint makes numerous puchases and sales of land, often requiring notarized loans. They brought up a family of seven children who in turn were all married. Then, a fateful day of 1690, a lieutenant of the troops, Michel Dumont de Blaignac, son of an influential person in Paris, killed Toussaint with his sword and fled the country. The grieving widow and heavily in debt had to cede her right of pursuit to the creditor, the merchant Charles De Couagne, who left her the enjoyment of the homestead "at the tip of the island".
This farm of 2 acres by 20 acres appears on the map drawn in 1702 at the request of father Belmont de Vachon, dean of the Sulpicians who were then the landlords of Montréal. It reads under the name Hunault in a section called "Côte St-Jean en Bas-de-l'Isle". Five lots more to the East is the small "Fort Gervaise de Pointe-aux-Trembles" and the lot of "Folleville", that is Charles Testard-Folleville, the husband of Anne Papineau Lamarque, (no link known with Samuel Papineau) who was a much celebrated inn-keeper in Montréal.
Marie Lorgueil will die nearby on the island of Ste-Thérèse, and will be interred in Varennes, on November 29, 1700.
Some of the Hunault-Deschamps children had also a tragic fate.
Thérèse Huneault-Deschamps, married to Guillaume Leclerc and mother of very young children, according to burial records in Pointe-aux-Trembles, "was killed cruelly in the barn by Iroquois indians, in LaChenaye, on August 7, 1689", three days after the terrible massacre of Lachine.
The kidnapping of Jeanne Hunault-Deschamps-Quevillon.
Jeanne Huneault-Deschamps and her husband Adrien Quevillon, have six children. During Iroquois fierce attacks between 1690 and 1693 on settlements surrounding Montréal and in particular against Rivière-des-Prairies and LaChenaye, they killed Adrien Quevillon and kidnapped the mother with two of her daughters, Angélique aged between 9 and 12 and Catherine aged between 4 and 7 years. The other children escaped unhurt except Pierre who is wounded lethally because one finds him on the list of the patients at the Hotel-Dieu hospital in Quebec city as of May 24, 1693, after which there is no more trace of him.
Oral tradition tells as follows of Catherine's kidnapping: "they burned the older sister (Angélique) under her eyes and she showed so much courage that they spared her to become later the mother of courageous Iroquois warriors".
The same reasoning of these barbarians had to apply also to her mother, Jeanne, then aged only 35 years.
(This kidnapping is situated between 1690 and 1693. We are looking actively in the archives of the French as well as of the Anglo-Dutch chronicles in Albany for the exact dates of their abduction and their liberation).
Here is the most likely scenario
A band led by the Onnontagué-Iroquois chief Black Caldron makes surprised attacks on LaChenaye, Pointe-aux-Trembles and Rivière-des-Prairies between 1689 and 1693. They make many victims among the inhabitants and the servicemen, as during their attack on the Groulx property of Rivière-des-Prairies where 14 Frenchmen were killed and temporarily buried until their permanent grave in Pointe-aux-Trembles in 1694.
Following the decisive campaign led in 1696 by governor Frontenac in Iroquois villages bordering the Mohawk river, they began to negotiate peace and to hand back hostages as a sign of goodwill. A group of eleven is turned over to the Dutch of Fort-Orange (Albany) and forwarded to Montréal. More hostages are freed by the intervention of captain Lemoyne de Maricourt, his Indian name was "Stow-Stow" meaning "Little Bird ", during negotiations with the Onontagués of whom he spoke the language.
At the same time, Sieur de Joncaire, with the help of Jesuit father Jacques Bruyas negotiated with the Iroquois-Tsonontouans. After lenghty palabers, constantly hindered by the Dutch of Orange (Albany) and Corlaer (Schenectedy), indeed the Iroquois Five Nations as well as fourty other Indian nations congregated in Montréal in 1701 for the signature of what became known as "the Big Peace" of Montréal.
In captivity in Iroquois territory, Jeanne Huneault-Deschamps, widow Quevillon, married there a frenchman named Jacques Courval, who most likely died there because there is no trace of him on the return of captives about 1698. They will have had a son, Louis Augustin Courval, born in captivity and baptized, under conditions, in Pointe-aux-Trembles on June 4, 1698 at the age of 18 months. The baptism document mentions that the parents were married in Iroquois territory, therefore at the beginning of 1696.
After her return in Montreal, of course with her 12 year old daughter Catherine, twice widowed Jeanne Huneault takes a third husband, Pierre Taillefer, soldier of the marquis De La Grois, the same commander as Samuel Papineau. Both possibly participated at these liberations from the Iroquois.
After the general demobilization of 1698 authorized by Versailles, Pierre Taillefer and Jeanne Hunault, at their marriage in 1699 obtained the royal dowry of 50 pounds which was granted to the soldiers who became established as "habitants", that is, settlers, and married a local woman, preferably a widow. They will have a son, Pierre Taillefer II, who will complete a reconstituted family of the six surviving children of three marriages. They settled on a farm in Rivière-des-Prairies, close to other Hunault/Deschamps, Quevillon, Papineau and related families.
In spite of all these adventures and hardships, the Quevillon, Huneault and Deschamps families will have numerous descendants, especially around Montreal, but also elsewhere in Canada and in America.
The sons and daughters of these heroic pioneers will want to recall the epic story of these three brave women whose blood runs in their veins:
the first ancestor, Marie Lorgueil married Hunault/Deschamps,
her daughter, Jeanne Hunault/Deschamps married Quevillon (three time married, -Courval, -Taillefer)
her granddaughter, Catherine Quevillon married Papineau (four time married, Lacombe/St-Amant, -Daniel, -Vérac/Parisien)
who however had children (9) only from Samuel Papineau.
(Still to research, in particular for the conditions of the kidnapping and the return from captivity)
A.- The map of 1702 of Vachon de Belmont and various reports like his History of Canada where he mentions:
1.-The miller's wife who defended Rivière des Prairies from the Iroquois. (The miller is Jean Sicard and his wife Catherine Lauzon, married in 1681).
2.-The wife of Cuillon is removed, but no date. Note: Cuillon, Cuvillon are deformations of Quevillon.
3.-Draws the exact place of the seigneurial mill, the Fort Desroches, the Rivière-Des-Prairies's church and the farm of the Quevillon on the map of Vachon de Belmont drawn in 1702 and on that of the enumeration of 1731.
Bellin's map of 1764 indicates also the Fort Desroches.
(To verify in the Sulpician's archives in Montréal and Paris if R-D-P's church of 1687 was burned during Iroquois raids as there are no entries in registers for several years).
B.- Church registers transcribed with the PRDH do not indicate a burial for Adrien Quevillon or for hisdaughter Angélique.
A notarial act by Parchemin indicates the inventory after the death of Adrien Quevillon only in 1708, much after the third marriage of his widow Jeanne Hunault with Pierre Taillefer.
C.- Crosscheck the list of Indian attacks reported between 1690 and 1693, by Belmont, Desrosiers, Charlevoix etc., and the Albany records of abduction and liberation of hostages by the Iroquois.
D.- According to whether Catherine Quevillon ( 1686-1781 ) was kidnaped in 1690 or in 1693, she will have spent eight years or five years in captivity. She woud then have been able to learn a lot about the customs, and even the language of the Iroquois. We know that she was twelve years old at the liberation in 1698.
She is 17 years old in her first marriage in 1703 with Guillaume Lacombe and 18 years old at her second marriage with Samuel Papineau in June, 1704.
E.- In a letter of 11 February 1870 to his son Amédée traveling in Europe, Louis-Joseph Papineau writes: "tout ce qu'il y a eu de plus hideux dans les souffrances de nos ancêtres, lors de la première colonisation, entre autres l'enlèvement d'une de nos aïeules maternelles à ce fort de Rivière-des-Prairies, dont nous avons été mesurer les ruines". Translated as : "All that was so ugly in the suffering of our ancestors during the first colonization, among others the abduction of one of our foremothers at this Fort of Rivière-des-Prairies, to which we have gone and mesured the ruins. "
F.- At the death of Catherine Quevillon Papineau in 1781, her son Joseph I (1719-1785) is 62 years old and her grandson Joseph II ( 1752-1841 ) is 27 years old. The first is a wealthy landlord in downtown Montréal who can read and write and his son is a successful notary. It is therefore safe to grant a lot of importance to the oral tradition in the Papineau family for this period such as it was told them by Catherine, as their mother and grandmother.
(Research in the writings of notary Joseph Papineau as a student in the Quebec Seminary and in his notarial records have yielded no results).
To see transcriptions of birth, marriage and burial certificates for Hunault-Deschamps, Quevillon and Papineau.
(PRDH of the University of Montreal, with permission, as revised by the author)
This chronicle of the first generations will be even more understandable in the light of a better knowledge of what was life in France, in New-France and in Montréal, in the time of Samuel Papineau and of Catherine Quevillon, at the beginning of the eighteenth century. NEXT>>>